I love a Creole lunch! Watercress and a slice of avocado make up the greens, fried plantains, dasheen puffs and farine (from cassava flour and avocado) balls make up the starches, and grilled local tuna in a mildly seasoned Creole sauce gives the protein for a hearty, wholesome and healthy meal!
After the English immersion students from Ludicademi in Martinique spent a busy June weekend touring major sites in Dominica: Indian River; Cabrits National Park and Fort Shirley; Emerald Pool; The Carib Territory and its Kalinago Barana Aute ( Carib Model Village), they dragged themselves into the classroom on Monday morning looking collectively exhausted! We were concentrating on Creole foods that day. Fortunately, there are many of the same and similar recipes in the ‘French Islands’, so the vocabulary lesson was not especially difficult!
Because we were not in a cooking class, I offered the students the following video clips about Dominican cooking:
Pepper sauce (r) is a prolific product on the Nature Island. Sorrel juice (l) is a spiced drink made from the red sepals of the hibiscus flower. It is delicious and is a Yule-tide favourite beverage.
1. How to Cook – Dominica Style
2. Tropical Vegetable and Fruit Garden Dominica
3. Cassava Bread Making in Dominica
4. Dominica Food for the Soul
I could not emphasize enough the proliferation of crops that thrive in Dominica’s fertile volcanic soil. Some people say that you can plant practically anything on the Nature Island; You just have to stick it in the soil and watch it grow! Some farmers may disagree with me, but I suspect there are numerous places to till the soil! There is no need to artificially season one’s recipe when cooking on Dominica: celery, chives, green onions, peppers, parsley and thyme are a few of the herbs that thrive here. There are also many starchy root vegetables which are traditionally called provisions : tannias, dasheen, cassava, cush-cush, sweet potatoes, yams. There are others that grow on trees and are considered essential staples: green bananas, plantains, breadfruits, to name a few.,
We went through all the standard cooking terminology, but the class was definitely more drawn to the similarities in meals with their own country, Martinique. We talked about callaloo soup, which is made from the leaves of the dasheen plant. It’s a popular dish around the Independence season in October and November. Some people like to add crab to their soup when they can be hunted at that time of year. Sancoche is another tasty dish, if you like the smoked flavour of codfish or chicken. It is sometimes available at Cartwheel Cafe on the Bayfront in Roseau during the year .Souse (pickled pig, cow or chicken) delights many Dominicans. There is also black (blood) pudding (like sausage) which can be found in Roseau and villages, largely on weekends. On Friday nights, many little snackettes and little shops offer customers goat, fish or chattoo (octopus) water, which is a tasty seasoned broth containing these meats. Titiri are little river fish that are seasoned and fried in a batter for a filling snack called accras. They can be found in various smaller establishments, such as Marvo’s Snackette on Independence Street (near King George V Street intersection). There is so much more: fig pie is actually a small banana which is cooked, mashed and then baked with a fish such as tuna in a cheesy or creamy sauce. I love it! Everyone has their own version of Creole sauce, which frequently adorns fish and chicken plates. It contains many of the above-mentioned seasonings and usually has a tomato base.
And there are so many fruits. I wonder if anyone has an exact count of the different types. Some of the more exotic/unfamiliar (to my hearing and/or taste) are; sapadilla; apricot (it’s huge!); carambola; pommerac; pomme citaine (golden apple); gooseberry; fwaise ( like a strawberry); canip; tamarind;guava; papaya; cherry; passionfruit; pineapple; banana; all the citrus varieties; and that’s only naming a few! (Please excuse any incorrect Creole spellings!)
I didn’t get a chance to talk about sweets in the class – but I’ll save that fort another post! The students made it through that day and were rewarded with a soothing soak at the Soufriere Sulphur Springs that afternoon to regain their vitality!
Dominica and Martinique share a number of cultural customs, including this type of Creole wear. The hat (tete mawe) and the jupe (overskirt) are made from madras cloth. The underskirt (jupon) and blouse (chemise decollotee) are created from white cloth, often with lace adornments.
On the last morning of class, the students looked much more refreshed, and as this was the day we would cover vocabulary about Dominica’s culture, I offered them a surprise when I asked them to stand up straight away. Their eyes opened wide when I sang the first verse of Dominica’s National Anthem for them. Then they performed a few songs for me, such as Frère Jacques, which we sang as a traditional round. What a great way to start this day!
We then jumped into having a look at Dominica’s motto, Apres bondie, c’est la ter (After God, it’s the land). The students were most intrigued that Dominica’s endangered Sisserou Parrot is a national symbol which features prominently on both the Flag and the Coat of Arms. They were further awed when they observed that Dominica’s critically endangered Crapaud (mountain chicken) frog has a place of honour on the Coat of Arms as well. They had just been learning about these creatures in the previous class on Flora and Fauna.
Again, as with foods, there were many similarities in terms of traditional dress and language, as the mix of European and West African cultural practises are also evident on the French islands. As well, Dominica is home to the Kalinago people, who paddled up to Dominica over 1,000 years ago from South America and called the mountainous island ‘Waitukubuli’, which means “tall is her body.” It was Christopher Columbus who named her Dominica, as he sighted her on a Sunday on his second voyage in 1493.
The Creole language does reflect the influence of English, French and Kalinago words, mixed with African grammatical speech syntax. The Martiniquais students could easily understand Dominican Creole, so they were cautioned by me to only speak English when out and about on the Nature Island, as that was the point of their visit. They assured me that they stuck to their immersion experience except when they were really confused. I hope that wasn’t too often!
Creole wear is sometimes worn in the French islands too. I have seen ladies at the produce markets in both Guadeloupe and Martinique sporting the colourful
Contemporary designers such as Dora (l) create modern versions of Creole wear. She is also wearing a ‘chapeau de paille’ (straw hat) which is a traditional head wear on Dominica.
madras cloth in traditional styles as such as the Wob Douillette, which is fashioned after French styles of the 17 and 18th centuries. Heavy gold jewelry frequently complements the outfit, and is said to
A type of “Wob’ (dress) which was worn by the ‘Madame Wob’ competition winner during Dominica’s Independence season in 2012.
have been inspired by African traditions. The same thing can be said for dance styles of old on the Nature Island. There are competitions all over the country that acknowledge this art form during the Independence season. As examples, the French inspired Mazouk looks like this. A very African type of dance, called the Bélé, looks like this. And there were English types of dance too, such as the ‘heel and toe’!
Beauty Pageants and Calypso Shows are big parts of Carnival celebrations. Miss Dominica 2012 Nadira Lando and now 6 time Calypso Monarch Dennison ‘Dice’ Joseph lead the Opening Parade for Carnival 2013.
Carnival is another area of Dominica’s culture with strong ties to African and European traditions. The students said that while they do celebrate Carnival in Martinique, it didn’t seem to be anything like what Dominica has to offer. I hope they will come back to find out during the next one! I have always described Mas Domnik as being original, traditional and fun! I am certain that most Dominicans will agree with me. It is celebrated in Dominica and the French Islands on the two days preceding Lent in the Catholic faith.
We also talked about the other festivities that draw large crowds from near and far – around the time of Independence in November and the World Creole Music Festival in October. It seems to me that there are always celebrations on the Nature Island – be
Dominica’s friendly, informal Carnival means that it is possible to have photos taken with popular participants wearing their traditional costumes, such as Miss Dominica 2013 Leslassa Armour-Shillingford. This exceptionally talented young lady is a repeat regional winner now too. You go, girl!
Sensay costumes, seen during Carnival parades are rooted in African traditions.
it Hike Fest, Nature Island Literary Festival, DOMFESTA, Dive Fest, Emancipation and more. Further details about these events can be found here.
Internationally renowned Dominican divas Michele Henderson (l) and Ophelia Marie performed at the 16th annual World Creole Music Festival in 2012.
The last hour of the class was given over to a special guest, who knows culture through and through. The Cultural
The French students were very attentive to Gregory Rabess’s instruction about culture in Dominica.
Division’s Gregory Rabess is a Creole specialist, poet and musician. He elaborated dramatically on the bits and pieces of cultural history and subsequent vocabulary that I had offered the group. They hung on to his every word!
Cultural Division Officer Gregory Rabess emphatically demonstrates a point to the class.
We were all especially delighted when he closed the session with one of his own Creole compositions that required active class participation in the refrain. It was in Creole language of course, so the only person who perhaps missed some of its meaning was me!
Although I was extremely tired after the four English immersion classes, I did thoroughly enjoy my short and sweet teaching stint. I wish the students of Ludicademi in Martinique the best of luck with their continuing studies of the English language and their English-speaking neighbour , Dominica. I hope I will see them again sometime on the Nature Island.
Reference: Africa and Dominica by Lennox Honychurch, PhD.
*This mini English immersion course was organized by Tina Alexander of Lifeline Ministries, Roseau Dominica. Thanks for having me along, Tina!